A key government order issued in 1944 restored a legally-constituted government to the French Republic, putting an end to acts of spoliation (asset confiscation) committed between 1940 and 1944 under the anti-Semitic legislation enacted by the occupying forces or Vichy authorities. Although legislation was subsequently passed to compensate the victims of asset confiscation, none has been sufficient to fully repair the loss suffered.
Under the Decree of 25 March 1997, the government set up the Working Party on the Spoliation of the Property Belonging to French Jews. The Mattéoli Mission, chaired by former chairman of the Conseil économique et social Jean Mattéoli, recommended that a commission be set up to handle compensation.
The Commission for the Compensation of Victims of Spoliation Resulting from the Anti-Semitic Legislation in Force during the Occupation (CIVS), known as the Drai Commission, was created at the instigation of Prime Minister Lionel Jospin on 10 September 1999, and officially set up on 15 November 1999.